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War in Iraq Links

War in Iraq: Web Links

Links to additional resources

Background Ottoman Empire | Information on Iraq | Maps of Iraq | History of Iraq | Timelines | Baath Party | Saddam Hussein | Iran-Iraq War (1980–88) | Persian Gulf War (1991)

Main Ethnic Groups Arabs | Kurds | Sunnis | Shiites

Government U.S. Government | U.S. Government Reports | Bush Doctrine | Iraqi Government

Non-Governmental Organizations Human Rights Groups | Humanitarian Organizations | Think Tanks

News Media & Publications Newspapers | Magazines | Broadcast News | Weblogs & Pundits | Other News Sources | Opinion Polls | Editorial Cartoons | Analyses of Media Coverage | Books

The War & Occupation Initial Phase | Coalition Authority | The Insurgents | Statistics | War & Occupation | U.S. Options

More Links Link Collections | America Responds to Terrorism: Web Links


Ottoman Empire

Encyclopedia Articles:

Encarta: Ottoman Empire

Wikipedia: Ottoman Empire

Columbia Encyclopedia: Ottoman Empire

1911 Britannica: Ottoman Empire

Encyclopedia of the Orient: Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire A timeline.

Online histories:

World Civilizations: The Ottomans

TheOttomans.org: History

The Ottoman Sultans and Caliphs


Google Directory: Ottoman Empire

Open Directory Project: Ottoman Empire

Yahoo Directory: Ottoman Empire

Information About Iraq

Encyclopedia Articles:

Encarta: Iraq

Wikipedia: Iraq

Columbia Encyclopedia: Iraq

Answers.com: Iraq

Encyclopedia of the Orient: Iraq Republic

Country Studies:

Library of Congress: Country Studies: Iraq

U.S. State Department: Background Notes: Iraq

CIA: World Factbook: Iraq

MidEastInfo: The Republic of Iraq

ArabNet: Iraq

Economist: Country Briefings: Iraq

BBC News: Country Profile: Iraq

CountryWatch: Iraq

Arab Social Science Network: Country Index: Iraq

Middle East Network Information Center: Iraq

U.S. Census Bureau: International Data Base: Iraq Demographic data on Iraq.


Yahoo: Iraq

Open Directory: Iraq

Google Web Directory: Iraq

Academic Info: Iraq Studies

Maps of Iraq

Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection


BBC News: Iraq: Key Maps

Al-Bab.com: Maps of Iraq

National Geographic: Iraq Maps Other resources also.

GlobalSecurity.org: Iraq Maps

Map of Iraqi Political Districts (PDF file)

Iraq: Map Sources (PDF file) A report to Congress from the Congressional Research Service.

Yahoo Directory: Iraq Maps Links.

History of Iraq

Encyclopedia Articles:

Encarta: History of Iraq

Wikipedia: History of Iraq

Answers.com: History of Iraq

Infoplease: An Iraq Primer

Encyclopedia of the Orient: Iraq History

Cultural Orientation Project: Iraqis: Their History and Culture

The History of Iraq from an Arab Perspective

Muslims, Islam, and Iraq By Professor Alan Godlas, University of Georgia.

An Archive of Articles on the History of Iraq


            Google Directory: History of Iraq

            Open Directory Project: History of Iraq

            Yahoo Directory: History of Iraq


BBC News: Iraq Timeline

Infoplease: Iraq Timeline

MidEastWeb: Chronology of Modern Iraqi History

U.S. Department of Energy: Iraq Energy Chronology: 1980–November 2005

Baath Party

Encyclopedia Articles:

            Encarta: Baath Party

            Wikipedia: Baath Party

            Columbia Encyclopedia: Ba’ath Party

            Answers.com: Baath Party

Encyclopedia of the Orient: Ba’th Socialist Party

Iraq Memory Foundation Digitized documents and oral histories from the dictatorial reign of the Baath Party in Iraq.

Google Directory: Baath Party Links.

Saddam Hussein

Encyclopedia Articles:

Encarta: Saddam Hussein

Wikipedia: Saddam Hussein

Columbia Encyclopedia: Saddam Hussein

Answers.com: Saddam Hussein

Encyclopedia of the Orient: Saddam Hussein

Saddam Hussein Profile From the BBC.

Tales of the Tyrant From Atlantic Monthly.

The Survival of Saddam From PBS Frontline.

Saddam Hussein From ABC News.

Saddam Hussein Interview by Dan Rather From CBS News.

CNN: Saddam Hussein Captured

Constitutional Rights Foundation: Famous Trials in World History: Saddam Hussein

Primary Documents:

National Security Archive: Saddam Hussein Sourcebook Documents on the relationship between Hussein and the U.S. in the 1980s.

CCNY Libraries: Government Views of Iraq A large collection of government documents relating to Iraq.


Google Directory: Saddam Hussein

Open Directory Project: Saddam Hussein

Yahoo Directory: Saddam Hussein

Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988)

Encyclopedia Articles:

Encarta: Iran-Iraq War

Wikipedia: Iran-Iraq War

Columbia Encyclopedia: Iran-Iraq War

Answers.com: Iran-Iraq War

Encyclopedia of the Orient: Iran-Iraq War

Federation of American Scientists: Lessons Learned: Iran-Iraq War A U.S. Marine Corps Historical Publication.

Center for Strategic and International Studies: Iran-Iraq War: 1980–1988 An online book.

GlobalSecurity.org: Iran-Iraq War A military history.

Chemical Warfare in the Iran-Iraq War By the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.


Yahoo: Iran-Iraq War

Google Directory: Iran-Iraq War

Open Directory: Iran-Iraq War Links.

Persian Gulf War of 1991

Encyclopedia Articles:

Encarta: Persian Gulf War of 1991

Wikipedia: Gulf War

Columbia Encyclopedia: Persian Gulf War

Answers.com: Gulf War

Encyclopedia of the Orient: Gulf War

The Gulf War From PBS Frontline.

Fog of War An analysis of the war by the Washington Post.

The History Guy: The Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)

The Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait: An Eyewitness Account

Operation Desert Storm: Ten Years After Documents from the war. From the National Security Archive.

U.S. Navy in Desert Shield/Desert Storm Report from the U.S. Navy.

GulfLink From the Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses.

Persian Gulf War 1990-1991 A huge bibliography of sources on the war.


Yahoo: The Persian Gulf War of 1991 Links.

Google Directory: The Persian Gulf War of 1991 More links.

Open Directory: The Persian Gulf War of 1991 Still more links.

Main Ethnic Groups


Encyclopedia Articles:

Encarta: Arabs

Wikipedia: Arab

Columbia Encyclopedia: Arabs

Answers.com: Arab

Citizendium: Arabic Language

1911 Britannica: Arabs

Encyclopedia of the Orient: Arabs

Google News Archive: Iraqi Arabs


Google Directory: Arab

Open Directory Project: Arab

Yahoo Directory: Arabic Culture


Encyclopedia Articles:

Encarta: Kurds

Wikipedia: Kurdish People

Columbia Encyclopedia: Kurds

Answers.com: Kurd

Encyclopedia of the Orient: Kurds

Washington Post: Who Are the Kurds?

Council on Foreign Relations: Backgrounder: The Role of Kurds in Iraqi Politics

BBC News: Timeline: Iraqi Kurds

Kurdistan Observer Latest news related to the Kurds.

Google News Archive: Kurds

Encyclopedia Articles on Jalal Talabani:

            Wikipedia: Jalal Talabani

            Answers.com: Jalal Talabani

            Encyclopedia of the Orient: Jalal Talabani

BBC News: Who’s who in Iraq: Jalal Talabani

Links on Kurds:

Yahoo Directory: Kurdish

Open Directory Project: Kurdish

Google Directory: Kurdish


Encyclopedia Articles:

Wikipedia: Sunni Islam

Encyclopedia of the Orient: Sunni

Encarta: Sunnism

Answers.com: Sunni

Islam for Today: The Origins of the Sunni/Shia Split in Islam

St. Martin’s College Division of Religion and Philosophy: General Essay on Sunni Islam

Council on Foreign Relations Backgrounder: Iraq’s Sunni Arabs

Google News Archive: Iraqi Sunnis


Open Directory Project: Sunni

Yahoo Directory: Sunni


Encyclopedia Articles:

Wikipedia: Shia Islam

Encyclopedia of the Orient: Shi’i Islam

Encarta: Shiism

Answers.com: Shia Islam

NPR: The Partisans of Ali: A History of Shia Faith and Politics A five-part series.

Islam for Today: The Origins of the Sunni/Shia Split in Islam

St. Martin’s College Division of Religion and Philosophy: General Essay on Shi’a Islam

Google News Archive: Iraqi Shiites

Keeping the Shi’ites Straight A short history and overview of the major Shiite figures in today’s Iraq. By Roy Parviz Mottahedeh.

Encyclopedia Articles on Ayatollah Sistani:

Wikipedia: Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani

Answers.com: Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani

Encyclopedia of the Orient: Ali Husaini al-Sistani

BBC News: Who’s who in Iraq: Ayatollah Sistani

Sistani.org The official web site of Grand Ayatollah Sistani.

Yahoo Directory: Ayatollah Ali Sistani Links.

Council on Foreign Relations: Backgrounder: Muqtada al-Sadr

Encyclopedia Articles on Muqtada al-Sadr:

Wikipedia: Muqtada al-Sadr

Answers.com: Muqtada al-Sadr

Encyclopedia of the Orient: Muqtada al-Sadr

BBC News: Who’s who in Iraq: Moqtada Sadr

Yahoo Directory: Muqtada al-Sadr Links.

Links on Shiites:

Yahoo Directory: Shia’ism

Open Directory Project: Shia

Google Directory: Shia


U.S. Government

White House: Iraq

U.S. Department of Defense

U.S. Department of State

U.S. State Department: Iraq Update

U.S. Central Command

Operation Iraqi Freedom Official site of the multinational force in Iraq.

U.S. Institute of Peace: Iraq

U.S. Embassy: Iraq

U.S. Government Reports

Congressional Research Service: Reports on Iraq

U.S. House of Representatives: Committee on Oversight and Government Reform: Iraq on the Record A “searchable collection of 237 specific misleading statements made by Bush Administration officials about the threat posed by Iraq.”

Iraq Study Group Report (PDF file)

Yahoo Directory: Iraq Study Group

U.S. Institute of Peace: The Iraq Study Group

Reports From the Future of Iraq Project

Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the U.S. Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction

Petraeus Report to Congress (PDF file)

YouTube: Report to Congress by General Petraeus Video of his report.

CCNY Libraries: Government Views of Iraq A large collection of government documents related to Iraq.

Bush Doctrine

Encyclopedia Articles:

Wikipedia: Bush Doctrine

Answers.com: Bush Doctrine

Constitutional Rights Foundation: The Bush Doctrine

National Security Strategy of the United States Document from the White House explaining President Bush’s new strategy for national security.

U.S. Foreign Policy Agenda Many articles from the U.S. Department of State.

The War Behind Closed Doors The people, the clashes—and ultimately the “grand strategy”— behind George W. Bush’s determination to go to war with Iraq. From PBS Frontline.

The President’s Real Goal in Iraq Opinion piece by Jay Bookman in the Atlanta-Journal Constitution on the reasons behind the Iraq war.

Reaction to “Bush’s Real Goal in Iraq” A criticism of the above article.

Bush’s Grand Strategy By Andrew J. Bachevich. From The American Conservative.

The Bush Doctrine A transcribed discussion between James Woolsey (former CIA director), James Lindsay (Brookings Institution), Victor Davis Hanson (visiting professor at the U.S. Naval Academy), and Daniel Brumberg (professor at Georgetown University). From FrontPage magazine.

Toward Universal Empire: The Dangerous Quest for Absolute Security By David C. Hendrickson, World Policy Journal.

A Grand Strategy of Transformation By John Lewis Gaddis. From Foreign Policy.

Essential Elements Missing in the National Security Strategy of 2002 By Charles Knight. From the Commonwealth Institute Project on Defense Alternatives.

The New National Security Strategy and Preemption By Michael E. O’Hanlon, Susan E. Rice, and James B. Steinberg. From the Brookings Institution.

The Bush Doctrine and War with Iraq By Jeffrey Record.


A Strategy Foretold By Tom Barry, codirector of Foreign Policy In Focus.

Understanding the Bush Doctrine (PDF file) By Robert Jervis in the Political Science Quarterly, Fall 2003.

Bush’s National Security Strategy is a Misnomer (PDF file) By Charles V. Peña of the Cato Institute in Policy Analysis, October 2003.

The New National Security Strategy: An Effective Blueprint for the War on Terror By Jack Spencer, Heritage Foundation.

Google Directory: Bush Doctrine Links.

Government of Iraq

Iraqi Government (In Arabic)

Kurdistan Regional Government (In English)


Google Directory: Iraq Government

Open Directory Project: Iraq Government

Yahoo Directory: Iraq Government

Non-Government Organizations

Human Rights Groups

Amnesty International: Iraq

Human Rights Watch: Iraq

Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights: Middle East

International Organization for Migration

Humanitarian Organizations

Relief Web


United Nations

Humanitarian Affairs

U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)

Think Tanks

American Enterprise Institute: Middle East

Baker Institute for Public Policy

Brookings Institution: Iraq

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: Iraq

Cato Institute: Iraq

Center for American Progress: War in Iraq

Center for Defense Information: Iraq

Center for Security Policy: War on Iraq

Center for Strategic & International Studies: Iraq War

Council on Foreign Relations: Iraq

Foreign Policy in Focus: Iraq

Global Policy Forum: Iraq

GlobalSecurity.org: Iraq

Heritage Foundation: Iraq

Hudson Institute: Middle East

Institute for Policy Studies: Iraq

International Crisis Group: Iraq

New America Foundation: Iraq

Project for the New American Century: Iraq

Project on Defense Alternatives: Insurgent Iraq

Rand: Iraq

Stimson Center: Iraq

Washington Institute for Near East Policy: Iraq

News Media & Publications



Christian Science Monitor: Iraq in Transition

Los Angeles Times: Iraq

New York Times Topics: Iraq

Washington Post: Iraq

Financial Times (U.K.): Iraq in Crisis

Guardian Unlimited (U.K.): Iraq

Times of London (U.K.): Iraq

Haaretz (Israel): War in Iraq


American Prospect: Iraq/The War on Terror

Nation: Iraq War

Reason: Iraq

National Review: Iraq

Newsweek: Iraq War

New Yorker: Iraq

Washington Quarterly: Iraq Large archive of stories on Iraq.

Broadcast News

CBS News: Iraq After Saddam

CNN: War in Iraq

BBC News: The Struggle for Iraq

CBC News: Iraq

Radio Free Europe: Iraq

Fox News: Iraq

MSNBC: War in Iraq

NPR: Iraq

C-SPAN: Iraq

Aljazeera: Middle East

PBS Online NewsHour: Iraq in Transition

Weblogs & Pundits

The Slate Field Guide to Iraq Pundits A 2003 run-down of the hawks and doves.

University of Michigan Documents Center: Iraq War Debate 2002–present

U.S.- IRAQ ProCon.org: Should the U.S. have attacked Iraq?

Informed Comment By Juan Cole, professor of modern Middle Eastern and South Asian history at the University of Michigan.

Altercation By Eric Alternman, liberal writer for the Nation.

Andrew Sullivan Conservative writer who initially favored and now opposes the war.

David Frum’s Diary Conservative writer who coined “axis of evil” for a President George W. Bush speech.

InstaPundit By conservative Glenn Reynolds, professor of law, University of Tennessee.

War in Context Anti-war blog.

Blogs of War A pro-war blog with links to other bloggers favoring the war.

Blogs from Iraqis:

Baghdad Burning

A Family in Baghdad

A Family From Mosul

Healing Iraq

Raed in the Middle

Tell Me a Secret

Iraq the Model Also has good collection of links to other blogs.

Iraq Blog Count A collection of links to Iraqi blogs.

GlobalSecurity.org: Iraq Blogs Scroll down for a large list of blogs on Iraq.

Washington Post: Blogging the War: A Guide An article describing many blogs on the war.

Other News Sources

Yahoo News Full Coverage: Iraq

Google News: Iraq

Iraq Updates

LexisNexis: Iraq

Topix: Iraq News

1st Headlines: Iraq

Institute for War & Peace Reporting: Iraq

Middle East Research and Information Project News analysis, commentary, and in-depth coverage.

Middle East Media Research Institute: Iraq News on Iraq from Middle East sources.

U.N. News Centre: Iraq The latest news from the United Nations.

Legal News:

FindLaw: Special Coverage: Iraq Aftermath

Jurist: Iraq Crisis

Diamond Law Library, Columbia Law School: The War on Iraq: Legal Issues

Opinion Polls

PollingReport: Iraq

World Public Opinion: Studies of Global Opinion Information and analysis on public opinion from around the world.

Roper Center: Public Opinion on Iraq Data from polls conducted by many survey research organizations.

Constitutional Rights Foundation Research Links: Opinion Polls Links to more polling information.

Editorial Cartoons on the Iraq War

Professional Cartoonist Index: Iraq War in Cartoons Large collection of political cartoons on the Iraq War.

Cartoonist Group: Iraq Cartoons Hundreds of editorial cartoons on Iraq.

Cartoon Bank: Iraq Cartoons from the New Yorker magazine (not editorial cartoons).

CSL News Cartoons: Iraq Cartoons

Analyses of Media Coverage

Journalism.org: Journalism in a Time of War An archive of stories on the wartime press from January to May 2003.

Media News Tracker: Iraq Reports on media issues. From MediaChannel.org.

FAIR Liberal media watchdog group.

Iraq Occupation

Accuracy in Media Conservative media watchdog group.

Columbia Journalism Review

The Note Long summary of what the media are saying.

Romenesko Weblog of media news. From Poynter.

Behind the Homefront A weblog of news in homeland security and military operations affecting newsgathering, access to information and the public’s right to know. From the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press.

The Journalists’ Toolbox


Iraq Coverage Resources From Poynter Online.

War Coverage Resources From the Radio-Television News Directors Association & Foundation.


The Future of Iraq, Dictatorship, Democracy, or Division? By Liam Anderson and Gareth Stansfield

The Iraq War: Causes and Consequences By Rick Fawn and Raymond A. Hinnebusch

The Iraq War Reader: History, Documents, Opinions Edited by Christopher Cerf and Micah L. Sifry.

The Threatening Storm: The Case for Invading Iraq By Kenneth Pollack.

War on Iraq: What Team Bush Doesn’t Want You to Know By William Rivers Pitt with Scott Ritter.

The Republic of Fear: The Politics of Modern Iraq By Kanan Makiya.

The Assassins’ Gate: America in Iraq By George Packer.

NPR: Talk of the Nation: Iraq Reading List Experts recommend books on Iraq.

Amazon.com A listing of books on these subjects:

History: Iraq

War in Iraq

The War & Occupation

Initial Phase of the War

Jules Crittenden Boston Herald reporter who was embedded with U.S. troops in 2003.

Letter From Iraq A 2003 dispatch by reporter Borzou Daragahi.

Links to Journalists Reporting From the War Zone From Poynter.

Weblogs and Diaries From Embedded Journalists Links to many weblogs. From Cyberjournalist.

Time Magazine: 21 Days to Baghdad A pictorial history of this period.

Department of Defense: Iraq’s 55 Most Wanted

Democracy and Ethno-Religious Conflict in Iraq (PDF file) A 26-page report written in 2003 by Andreas Wimmer, professor of sociology, UCLA

Coalition Provisional Authority

Encyclopedia Articles:

Wikipedia: Coalition Provisional Authority

Answers.com: Coalition Provisional Authority

Coalition Provisional Authority Archived web site of the now-defunct CPA.

Information Clearing House: Who’s Who in the Coalition Provisional Authority A critical look at the American personnel chosen to run Iraq.

Yahoo Directory: Coalition Provisional Authority Links.

The Insurgents

Encyclopedia Articles:

Wikipedia: Iraqi Insurgency

Answers.com: Iraqi Insurgency

U.S. Institute of Peace: Who Are the Insurgents? Sunni Arab Rebels in Iraq A 2005 report.

BBC News Guide: Armed groups in Iraq An overview of the different insurgent groups.

Washington Post: Iraq’s Insurgents: Who’s Who Another overview of the groups.

Statistics on the War and Occupation

National Priorities Project: Cost of War

The Economic Costs of the Iraq War: An Appraisal Three Years after the Beginning of the Conflict (PDF file) By Linda Bilmes of Harvard University’s Kennedy School and Joseph E. Stiglitz of Columbia University.

Iraq Body Count Database of violent civilian deaths during and since the 2003 invasion.

Department of Defense: U.S. Military Casualty Update (PDF file)

Military Times: Honor the Fallen Database of those who fought and died in Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom.

Iraq Coalition Casualty Count

CNN: U.S. and Coalition Casualties: Iraq

Iraq War Coalition Fatalities Map

Iraq Index A statistical compilation of economic, public opinion, and security data.

War & Occupation

Encyclopedia Articles:

Encarta: U.S.-Iraq War

Wikipedia: Iraq War

Answers.com: Iraq War

Citizendium: Iraq War

Encyclopedia of the Orient: US/British-Iraq War

U.S. Options in Iraq

Council on Foreign Relations: What Should Be The U.S. Exit Strategy From Iraq? Four experts reply in this 2005 interview.

Dissent Magazine: Exit or No Exit? Morality and the Withdrawal from Iraq Five experts tackle this question.

BBC News: Key options for Iraq exit strategy

Cato Institute: U.S. Options in Iraq: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly by Charles V. Peña. He thinks leaving is the least bad option.

FrontPage Magazine: U.S. Options in Iraq By Michael Rubin. He urges that the surge continue.

New York Review of Books: Iraq: The Way to Go By Peter W. Galbraith. He argues for a soft partition of Iraq.

Rand: U.S. Policy Options for Iraq: A Reassessment A 2007 book. You can download the document as a PDF file for free.

Washington Post: Exit Strategies An article by Karen DeYoung and Thomas E. Ricks on the debate about how and when to leave Iraq.

SourceWatch: Exit Strategy From Iraq An overview from a left perspective.

Boston Review: Exit Strategy: How to disengage from Iraq in 18 months By Barry R. Posen.

Project on Defense Alternatives: Iraq War Withdrawal and Exit Plans Links to many articles of differing political persuasion on how the United States should remove itself from Iraq.

Link Collections

Open Directory Project: Iraq War

Yahoo: War in Iraq

Google Web Directory: Specific Conflicts: Iraq

Librarian’s Index to the Internet: Iraq War

American Library Association: Alternative Resources on the U.S. War Against Iraq

Middle East Review of International Affairs: Post-Saddam Iraq

East Carolina University: Joyner Library: The War on Terrorism: Post-Saddam Iraq

U.S. Institute of Peace: Iraq Web Links

Updated: November 7, 2007