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Unit 2-Chapter 8
Chapter 8: The Limits of Police Authority

Racial Profiling | Police Corruption | Use of Force | Policing the Police | You and the Police |

Racial Profiling

Wikipedia: Racial Profiling
Whren v. U.S. (1996) U.S. Supreme Court decision allowing police to stop people for traffic infractions even if the police have a different motivation for making the stop.
The North Carolina Highway Traffic Study A 2003 report on traffic stop in North Carolina.(North Carolina Center for Crime and Justice Research)
Racial Justice: Racial Profiling Press releases, action items, publications, legal documents, legislative documents, speeches, and fact sheets on racial profiling. (ACLU)
“Racial Profiling”: The View From A Squad Car This editorial by Fred Reed argues in favor of profiling by police.
The Myth of Racial Profiling This article argues that there is no evidence that racial profiling exists and attacks against it are damaging police work. (Manhattan Institute)
‘Racial Profiling’ Doesn’t Prove Cops Are Racist Wall Street Journal article by Jackson Toby.
The Case for Using Racial Profiling at Airports Argument in favor of profiling people of Arabic descent at airports. (Atlantic Monthly)
Keating endorses profiling for airport searches News article on the views of then-governor of Oklahoma Frank Keating. (Milwaukee Journal Sentinel)
Look who’s in favor of racial profiling now Opinion piece noting that after the 9/11 attacks many blacks favored profiling at airports. (Clarence Page)
Threat and Humiliation: Racial Profiling, Domestic Security, and Human Rights in the United States (PDF file) The 2004 report on racial profiling in the United States. (Amnesty International)
Profiles in Injustice: Why Racial Profiling Cannot Work Website of an opponent of racial profiling, includes article on “Flying While Arab.”
Senate Committee Hearing: “Racial Profiling within Law Enforcement Agencies” Testimony of several witnesses at the U.S. Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Constitution, Federalism, and Property Rights.
Contacts between Police and the Public: Findings from the 2002 National Survey (Bureau of Justice Statistics)
NCJRS: Law Enforcement: Profiling Publications and links from the federal government. (National Criminal Justice Reference Service)
Google Directory: Racial Profiling Links.
Open Directory Project: Racial Profiling Links.
Yahoo Directory: Racial Profiling Links.

Police Corruption

Official Frank Serpico Website Information about Serpico, the former police officer who became known when he exposed the deep-seated corruption in the NYPD in the 1970s.
Media Reports Connected to the LAPD Corruption Scandal Collected articles on the scandal. (Streetgangs.com)
LAPD Blues A 2001 report on the Rampart scandal. (PBS’s Frontline)
One Bad Cop Story of the Rampart Scandal. (New York Times Magazine)
Rampart Area Corruption Incident: Public Report (PDF File) Report prepared by the LAPD Board of Inquiry containing many short- and long-term recommendations to prevent reoccurrences of incidents like Rampart.
Information on Drug-Related Police Corruption (PDF file) U.S. General Accounting Office report on the correlation between drug-trafficking and police corruption.
Police Corruption—Police Integrity Collection of articles on these subjects. (Criminal Justice Resources, Michigan State University Libraries)

Use of Force

Tennessee v. Garner (1985) U.S. Supreme Court case on Fourth Amendment limit to police use of deadly force.
National Data Collection on Police Use of Force Joint paper of National Institute of Justice and Bureau of Justice Statistics summarizing research on police use of force and listing the difficulties in collecting use-of-force data.
Use of Force by Police: Overview of National and Local Data Updated report from National Institute of Justice and Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Police Use of Force Links on the use of force. (Criminal Justice Resources, Michigan State University Libraries)
NCJRS: Use of Force Publications and links from the federal government. (National Criminal Justice Reference Service)

Policing the Police

Rethinking Rodney King An interview with Washington Post reporter Lou Cannon, author of Official Negligence: How Rodney King and the Riots Changed Los Angeles and the LAPD.
Amadou Diallo Case Links to Washington Post articles on the case of Amadou Diallo, the New York City man shot 41 times by police while reaching into his jacket to retrieve his wallet.
“We Own the Night:” Amadou Diallo’s Deadly Encounter with New York City’s Street Crimes Unit Article by Timothy Lynch argues that New York Police Department’s aggressive use of stop and frisks were responsible for the Amadou Diallo incident. (Cato Institute)
Amadou Diallo Shooting News stories and archives. (Court TV)
The Abner Louima Torture Case Links to documents related to the trial of five NYPD cops indicted in the case involving the torture of Abner Louima. (Smoking Gun)
Yahoo Directory: Abner Louima Case
Police Brutality Caught On Tape News report, including the videotape, of the alleged beating in 2004 of Sayyid Qadri. (CBS2 Chicago)
POV: Every Mother’s Son The story of three mothers of victims of police brutality who came together to demand justice and accountability. (PBS)
Police Attitudes Toward Abuse of Authority (PDF file) A year-2000 study on police attitudes toward abuse of authority. (U.S. Department of Justice)
Employee Review Programs Lecture notes on the two traditional ways of handling complaints against police: internal affairs units and civilian review boards. (MegaLinks in Criminal Justice)
Cutting Crime, Keeping Our Rights Several experts give their opinions on how police can keep guns and drugs off the street while respecting the civil rights of citizens.
Shielded from Justice: Police Brutality and Accountability in the United States A report on police brutality in the United States. (Human Rights Watch)
PBS Online NewsHour: NYPD Blues Exploration of allegations of police brutality in New York.
What Happened When I Was Accused of Police Brutality A cop’s story and his recommendations to improve the system. (Slate)
When does police mistake become murder? Analysis of what it takes to convict police officers who fire guns in mistaken belief that they are in danger. (Christian Science Monitor)
Yahoo Directory: Police Brutality

You and the Police

Your Rights if Questioned, Stopped, or Arrested by the Police Fact sheet summarizing the rights that a person can invoke when questioned by police. (Ohio State Bar Association)
Know Your Rights During Police Encounters Advice from the ACLU.