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Unit 2-Chapter 6
Chapter 6: Methods and Investigations

Community Policing | Criminal Investigations | Crime Labs

Community Policing

Broken Windows The heavily influential 1982 Atlantic Monthly article by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling.
Making Neighborhoods Safe A 1989 Atlantic Monthly article by Wilson and Kelling gives more detail on the “broken windows” theory.
Wikipedia: Fixing Broken Windows
Reconsidering the “Broken Windows” Theory A report on new research questioning the validity of the theory. (Audio file) (NPR)
Cutting Crime and Restoring Order Lecture advocating community policing delivered by William J. Bratton, former New York police commissioner. (Heritage Foundation)
NYPD Crime Statistics Weekly crime statistics citywide, by borough, and by precinct.
Community Oriented Policing San Diego Police Department’s description of its community policing program.
Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS) Chicago’s philosophy of community policing, including tips, success stories, and other information.
Online NewsHour: Busting Crime Story of how Chicago has dramatically reduced crime.
Eyes on the Street This article assessing community policing in Chicago, calling it “a qualified success.” (American Prospect)
Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) Information on community policing including grants, programs, news, legislation, information, and resources. (U.S. Department of Justice)
Community Policing Beyond the Big Cities A study of eight law enforcement agencies in small cities and rural areas that have implemented problem-solving initiatives. (National Institute of Justice)
Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers (PDF file) Sixty steps for implementing problem-oriented policing. (Office of Community Oriented Policing Services)
Mega-List of Community Policing and Problem Solving Programs Extensive links.
NCJRS: Community Policing and Problem-Oriented Policing Publications and links from the federal government. (National Criminal Justice Reference Service)
Yahoo Directory: Community Policing

Criminal Investigations

Crime Scene Investigation Links to articles and web sites on investigating crime scenes.
Criminal Investigation: Internet Resources Links to sites on criminal investigations.
Death Investigation: A Guide for the Scene Investigator A guide written by the National Medicolegal Review Panel for investigators of scenes of death.
Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for Law Enforcement A review of the fundamental principles of investigating a crime scene and preserving evidence. (National Institute of Justice)
Crime Scene Investigation: A Reference for Law Enforcement Training A manual written for law enforcement trainers to accompany Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for Law Enforcement. (National Institute of Justice)
True Confessions Two proposals for police to make sure that innocent people do not go to jail. (Atlantic Monthly)
A Constitutional Guide for Using Cellmate Informants An overview of the law. (’Lectric Law Library)
Jailhouse Informants and the Sixth Amendment: Is the U.S. Supreme Court Adequately Protecting an Accused’s Right to Counsel? A 2003 Boston College Law Review article proposing a new standard for detecting right-to-counsel violations in cases involving jailhouse informants.
Who’s That Guy in the Police Lineup? Article explaining where police get the lineup suspects and reviewing some proposals to get better identifications. (Slate)
U.S. v. Wade (1967) U.S. Supreme Court case requiring defense attorneys at post-indictment lineups.
Kirby v. Illinois (1972) U.S. Supreme Court case refusing to require defense attorneys at lineups before indictments.
Neil v. Biggers (1972) U.S. Supreme Court case refusing to overturn a conviction based on a showup identification.
Simmons v. U.S. (1968) U.S. Supreme Court case on an in-court identification arguably based on suggestive photographic array.
Eyewitness Evidence: A Guide for Law Enforcement Guide outlining procedures for obtaining the most reliable and accurate information from eyewitnesses. (National Institute of Justice)
Eyewitness Evidence: A Trainer’s Manual for Law Enforcement A manual written for law enforcement trainers to accompany Eyewitness Evidence: A Guide for Law Enforcement. (National Institute of Justice)
NCJRS: Law Enforcement: Investigations Publications and links from the federal government. (National Criminal Justice Reference Service)
Science and the Law A curriculum unit. (Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute)
Illinois v. Gates (1983) U.S. Supreme Court case upholding the use of reliable informants for search warrants.
Massiah v. U.S. (1964) U.S. Supreme Court case holding that incriminating statements deliberately elicited by federal agents from an indicted defendant without an attorney violate the Sixth Amendment and cannot be used at trial.
Stovall v. Denno (1967) U.S. Supreme Court case described in Case #1: Hospital Visit on page 82.
Manson v. Brathwaite (1977) U.S. Supreme Court case described in Case #2: Hallway on page 82.
Foster v. California (1969) U.S. Supreme Court case described in Case #3: Lineups on page 82.

Crime Labs

FBI Laboratory The home page of the FBI crime lab, a gateway to a wealth of information and links.
The FBI Laboratory: An Investigation into Laboratory Practices and Alleged Misconduct In recent years, certain sections of the FBI crime lab have been accused of wrongdoing and improper practices. This is a Department of Justice report on its investigation of the allegations.
Special Report: Forensics Under the Microscope News stories on forensics. You will need to register for free before viewing the site. (Chicago Tribune)
NCJRS: In the Spotlight: Forensic Science Facts & figures, legislation, publications, programs, and related resources.
“ ‘CSI’ Effect” Is Mixed Blessing for Real Crime Labs More people know about crime laboratories, but their knowledge is creating unrealistic expectations. (National Geographic News)
Zeno’s Forensic Site Information on all areas of forensics, including scientific, medical, and psychological aspects.
Questioned Document Examination Page A site exploring aspects of questioned documents.
Forensic Sciences: Publications and Products Online publications. (National Institute of Justice)
Yahoo Directory: Forensics
Google Directory: Forensic Science
NCJRS: Law Enforcement: Forensic Laboratories Publications and links from the federal government. (National Criminal Justice Reference Service)
Physical Evidence Articles and links on forensic evidence.
Evidence: The True Witness Information about the different fields of forensic science. (A ThinkQuest site created by students)
Handbook of Forensic Services Explanation of procedures for collecting and preserving evidence and a description of forensic examinations performed by the FBI crime lab. (U.S. Department of Justice)
Mary Manhein: Diary A forensic anthropologist account of how to identify decomposing bodies. (Slate)
Fingerprint Evidence Articles and links on fingerprinting.
Latent Print Examination: Fingerprint, Palmprints, and Footprints Information on latent prints.
Firearms ID An introduction to forensic firearms identification.
Forensic Science Resources on the Internet Links to many sites.
Cybrary: Forensics Links.
DNA Evidence: It’s in Your Genes An article describing how DNA evidence works. (Nolo Press)
Basics of DNA Fingerprinting Basic information on DNA fingerprinting. (From a class project at the University of Washington)
Without a Trace? Advances in Detecting Trace Evidence (PDF file) (National Institute of Justice)
NCJRS: DNA and Forensics Publications and links from the federal government. (National Criminal Justice Reference Service)
Survey of DNA Crime Laboratories, 2001 Findings from a survey of publicly operated forensic crime labs that perform DNA testing. The survey includes questions about each lab’s budget, personnel, workloads, and operating policies procedures. (Bureau of Justice Statistics)
Census of Publicly Funded Forensic Crime Laboratories, 2002 Reports on the organization, functions, budget and expenditures, staffing, workload, and forensic backlog in the Nation’s more than 350 publicly funded crime labs. (Bureau of Justice Statistics)
What Every Law Enforcement Officer Should Know about DNA Evidence An explanation of DNA and related identification, preservation, and collection issues. (National Institute of Justice)
President’s DNA Initiative Resources and links on DNA (White House)
Forensics & Investigation Links to many in-depth articles. (Court TV’s Crime Library)
Center for Law and Science and Forensic Science-Law Reading Center Links to scientific evidence sites, forensic science links, and DNA databases, and articles. (Law-forensic.com)
DNA “Fingerprinting” A 1998 CNN/Time Poll assessing public opinion on whether DNA samples should be taken from everyone arrested. Scroll down.
DNA Testing: The Next Big Crime-Busting Breakthrough Article by New York City Police Commissioner Howard Safir and a colleague strongly favoring extensive use of DNA evidence including taking DNA samples from everyone arrested.
Proposition 69 and Your DNA Privacy The American Civil Liberty Union’s objections to taking DNA samples from everyone arrested.