Criminal Justice in America, 4th Edition Links

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Chapter 24: Crime and the Citizen

Chapter 24: Crime and the Citizen

Getting Involved in Fighting Crime

Polling Report: Crime Public opinion polls on crime and related issues. Despite statistics to the contrary, Americans still believe there is more crime in America than the previous year.

Vigilantes in American History

San Francisco Committees of Vigilance Articles on the 1851 and 1856 committees. (Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco)
The Vigilance Committee of 1856 A narrative history of the San Francisco committee.
Regulator-Moderator War An account of the Shelby County, Texas, incident from the Handbook of Texas Online.
Vigilantes A short article on the phenomenon and primary source documents (poster and letters). (Spartacus)

Crime in Schools

Indicators of School Crime and Safety The latest in school crime statistics. (National Center for Education Statistics)
School Violence Prevention Publications, resources, and links. (National Mental Health Information Center)
Preventing School Violence (Text) (PDF) National Institute of Justice research papers on school violence.
The School Shooter: A Threat Assessment Perspective (PDF file) A report presenting a model for assessing threats at schools and intervening. (FBI)
A Time Line of Recent Worldwide School Shootings A listing of school shootings from 1996 to the present. (InfoPlease)
The Killer at Thurston High A report delving into what led a 15-year-old Oregon boy to kill his parents and two classmates and shoot and injure 25 others. (PBS Frontline)
Are U.S. Schools Safe? A 1998 report following the Columbine shootings with links to related stories and features, the Columbine attack, and other school shootings. (CNN)
Center for the Prevention of School Violence Gives a map of a typical school and resources for addressing problems in different parts of the school.
Keep Schools Safe A site dealing with the many issues related to the safety and security of our schools.
School Violence Links to articles, web sites, and resources. (National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center)
Youth Violence: A Fact Sheet Statistics, facts, and links on youth and school violence. (Centers for Disease Control)
Youth Gangs in Schools A report on the characteristics of gangs in schools, reasons that some schools have a greater prevalence of gangs, and the impact of gangs on schools. (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention)
Toward Safe and Orderly Schools—The National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools A 2004 report. (National Institute of Justice)
Safe School Initiative A 2002 study of school shootings and other school-based attacks. (Secret Service and U.S. Department of Education)
NCJRS: School Safety Publications and links from the federal government. (National Criminal Justice Reference Service)
NCJRS: In the Spotlight: School Safety Facts & figures, legislation, publications, programs, and related resources.
OJJDP Topics:

Dropout / Expulsion
School Involvement
School Safety

A Guide to Safe Schools Research-based practices designed to assist schools identify warning signs early and develop prevention, intervention and crisis response plans. (U.S. Department of Education)
Manual on School Uniforms A report on where school uniforms are used and how effective they are. (U.S. Department of Education)
Zero Tolerance Policy A 2001 report highly critical of zero tolerance policies at schools. (American Bar Association)
Reports pointing out that school violence has declined dramatically in recent years. (Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice):

School House Hype: The School Shootings, and the Real Risks Kids Face in America
School House Hype: Two Years Later

Yahoo Directory: School Violence Links.
Yahoo Full Coverage: School Violence The latest news.
School Violence Links (Constitutional Rights Foundation)

Burglary Prevention

Burglary Prevention Tips Ten tips to protect a home from burglars. (Austin, Texas, Police Department)
Burglary Prevention Checklist for Homes A detailed home protection survey. (Ruston Police Department and National Sheriffs’ Association)
Tips on burglary prevention for students and other residents (Ohio State University Department of Public Safety)
Topics in Crime Prevention Links to articles on many topics, including burglary, which details how to start and run a neighborhood watch group. (National Crime Prevention Council)
A Checklist For Starting a Neighborhood Watch Program (PDF file) A detailed list. (National Crime Prevention Council)
Joining a Neighborhood Watch (PDF file) A good summary of what a neighborhood watch is and what to do to join. (National Crime Prevention Council)
Crime Prevention Unit: Home Security A lengthy article on securing a home from burglars. (Police Department, City of Simi Valley)

Conclusion on Crime

Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising A study on which governmental programs have been most effective in preventing crime. (National Institute of Justice)
The State of Violent Crime in America The first report of the Council on Crime in America. (Heartland Institute)
Preventing Crime, Saving Children: Monitoring, Mentoring, & Ministering A summary of the second report of the Council on Crime in America. (Texas Youth Commission)
Lessons of the “Get Tough” Movement in the United States A 2004 report criticizing get-tough programs. (Sentencing Project)
Crime and Punishment in America Argues that incarceration is the most effective way to fight crime. (National Center for Policy Analysis)
Did Getting Tough on Crime Pay? This 1997 report highlights some of the negative results of “getting tough on crime.” (Urban Institute)
Diverting Children from a Life of Crime: Measuring Costs and Benefits A cost-benefit analysis of early-intervention approaches as a means of reducing serious crime. (Rand)
NCJRS: Crime Prevention Publications and links from the federal government. (National Criminal Justice Reference Service)

Chapter 23: Crime and the Government

Chapter 23: Crime and the Government

The Role of the Government

Crime and the Federal Government

Summary of the American Bar Association’s Report on the Federalization of Criminal Law Highly critical report of the increasing number of federal crimes.
Small v. U.S. (2005) A 5–3 U.S. Supreme Court case interpreting the meaning of the words “in any court.”
The Case of the Speluncean Explorers: Nine New Opinions Excerpts from a book by Peter Suber that uses a famous fictitious legal case to illustrate nine contemporary philosophies of law.
What Can the Federal Government Do To Decrease Crime and Revitalize Communities? (PDF file) This 1998 publication includes the opinions of several criminal justice experts who have examined Federal criminal justice assistance over the past three decades. (National Institute of Justice)

Federal Policy: The Patriot Act

beSpacific: Patriot Act Archives A legal web log’s links to current and past information on the Patriot Act.
USA PATRIOT Act Sunset: Provisions That Expire on December 31, 2005 (PDF file) A Congressional Research Service report. (Library of Congress)
USA Patriot Act (PDF file) The text of the Patriot Act. (FindLaw)
Statement of U.S. Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales Before the U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary, April 5, 2005 The attorney general argues in favor of reauthorizing the Patriot Act. Also here.
A University of Washington law professor argues against the reauthorization of the Patriot Act in two articles (Findlaw):

The Proposal to Reauthorize and Expand Parts of the USA PATRIOT Act: Why It’s Unnecessary and, in Some Respects, Dangerous
The Important But Flawed USA Patriot Act: Why Congress Should Allow Certain Provisions to Expire This Year

Electronic Frontier Foundation: The USA Patriot Act A collection of materials from a group that opposes the Patriot Act.
Electronic Privacy Information Center: The USA Patriot Act A collection of materials from another group that opposes the Patriot Act.
ACLU: USA Patriot Act Another site from an opponent of the Patriot Act. Patriot Act News A collection of the latest news stories on the Patriot Act.
PBS Online NewsHour:

Background Report: The USA Patriot Act
President Bush Signs Anti-Terrorism Bill (10/26/2001)
The Patriot Act (2/24/2003)
Too Tough? (6/5/2003)
Libraries and Liberties (6/18/2003)
Considering the Patriot Act (8/19/2003)
Security vs. Liberties (9/11/2003)
Patriot Act (4/6/2005)
Renewing the Patriot Act (4/5/2005)
Patriot Act (4/6/2005)
Liberty and Security (6/16/2005)
Renewing the Patriot Act (7/19/2005)
Renewing the Patriot Act (7/21/2005)
New Patriot Act Questions (11/7/2005)

Federal Policy: Gun Control

Gun Laws, Gun Control, and Gun Rights A resource for individuals on all sides in the controversy over the legal status of guns in the United States. It includes cases, laws, news stories, articles, statistics, and links. (Jurist: The Legal Education Network)
Polling Report: Guns Opinion polls on gun-control measures, gun ownership, and other issues about guns.
Justice Learning: Gun Control Resources for teachers and students about issues surrounding gun control. (New York Times and NPR)
Guns and Violence A medical doctor argues against gun control. (Association of American Physicians and Surgeons)
A Well-Regulated Militia A 1996 article by Gene Garman examining the historical background of the Second Amendment.
Gun Owners of America A prominent gun lobby in Washington.
National Rifle Association (NRA) The most famous pro-gun organization in the United States.
Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence An organization that works to enact gun-control legislation, but does not seek to ban guns.
The Coalition to Stop Gun Violence A prominent organization advocating strict gun-control measures and a ban on the sale and possession of assault weapons.
Violence Policy Center An organization that advocates banning the personal possession of handguns.
Fact Sheet: Handguns Information favoring the enactment of federal, state and local gun-control laws. (American Public Health Association)
Gun Control Links to law reviews and other articles by UCLA law professor Eugene Volokh, who interprets the Second Amendment as an individual right to bear arms.
The Gun-Control Debate Links to three classic articles on gun violence: “Thinking About Crime,” “Second Thoughts on the Second Amendment,” and “The Story of a Gun.” (Atlantic Monthly)
Exploring Constitutional Conflicts: The Right to Bear Arms? An overview of the issue, questions to consider, and links to resources and court cases.
Issue in Depth: Gun Control Articles on gun-control issues. (New York Times)
Reducing Youth Gun Violence: An Overview of Programs and Initiatives (Text) (PDF) A 1996 report. (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention).
Hot Guns A report on cheap handguns, their makers, and the illicit handgun market. (PBS Frontline)
Gun Control vs. Gun Rights An analysis of a gun control issue. (
Articles by John R. Lott Jr., who strongly opposes gun control:

Now We’re Getting Somewhere: A Silver Lining in a Gun Ban
Confirming More Guns, Less Crime
The Cure for Multiple Shootings

Taking Aim A roundtable discussion of President Clinton’s 1998 executive order banning the import of over 50 types of foreign-made assault weapons. (PBS Online NewsHour)
Brady Act The text of the Brady Act, an important gun-control law.
Printz v. U.S. (1997) A Supreme Court case ruling unconstitutional portions of the Brady Act.
U.S. v. Miller (1939) The only U.S. Supreme Court decision on the Second Amendment in the 20th century.
Yahoo Full Coverage: Gun Control Debate News.

An Attack on Crime: The State Level

U.S. Sheriff Departments Links to sheriff departments across the nation.
Directory of State Patrol and State Police Links to these police agencies.
Yahoo Directory: Local Police Departments Links to local police and sheriff departments.
Fighting Crime in the Trenches Testimony before a committee of the House of Representatives from a mayor, a prosecutor, and a police commissioner who have had great success in fighting crime at the local level.

The New Role of State Supreme Courts

California v. Greenwood (1988) U.S. Supreme Court case holding that people have no right to privacy in items left on the curb for trash collectors.
Privacy of Garbage Discussion of California v. Greenwood and State v. Hempele.
Washington v. Boland (1990) A ruling by the Supreme Court of Washington that the state of Washington’s constitution gives people a right to privacy in items that leave for trash collection.
Vermont v. Morris (1996) A ruling by the Vermont Supreme Court that held that under the state constitution there was a right to privacy in items left for trash.
New Hampshire v. Goss (2003) A decision by the Supreme Court of New Hampshire that the state’s constitution protects the right to privacy of items left for trash collection.

The Color of Justice

Race and America’s Justice System A commentary by Vincent Schiraldi, director of the Justice Policy Institute.
Links on Race and the Criminal Justice System Links to articles and studies. (
Sentencing Project reports:

Racial Disparity in Sentencing: A Review of the Literature (2005) (PDF file)
State Rates of Incarceration by Race (2004) (PDF file)
The Crisis of the Young African American Male and the Criminal Justice System (1999) (PDF file)

Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974–2001 A report that includes projections by age, gender, race, and Hispanic origin of the likelihood of incarceration for persons born in 2001, assuming current incarceration rates continue.
Disproportionate incarceration of African Americans for drug offenses in the U.S. (PDF file) A 2004 research report. (Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority)
Justice on Trial: Racial Disparities in the American Criminal Justice System An online book on the disparate treatment of minorities. Chapters include: race and the police; race and prosecutorial discretion; race, sentencing and the “Tough on Crime” movement; willful judicial blindness; race and the juvenile system; the consequences of too little justice; and 10 recommendations. (National Institute of Corrections)
United States of America: Death by Discrimination A 2003 report on the continuing role of race in capital cases. (Amnesty International)
McCleskey v. Kemp (1987) U.S. Supreme Court case ruling that statistical studies were not enough to prove racial discrimination in an individual case.
Black Skin, White Justice: Race Matters in the Criminal Justice System A curricular unit designed for grades 9–12 that explores the significance of race in the criminal justice system. (Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute)

Chapter 15: Alternatives to Prison

Chapter 15: Alternatives to Prison

The Need for Alternatives


Tate v. Short (1971) U.S. Supreme Court case establishing that it is a denial of equal protection to limit punishment to payment of a fine for those who are able to pay it, but to convert the fine to imprisonment for those who are unable to pay it.
How to Use Structured Fines (Day Fines) as an Intermediate Sanction (PDF file) Guidelines for policymakers and criminal justice practitioners considering using structured fines as part of their overall sentencing system. (U.S. Department of Justice Assistance)


“Broken Windows” Probation: The Next Step in Fighting Crime A report on its ideas for fixing the probation system. (Manhattan Institute)
Probation and Parole Statistics Statistics and links to publications about probation and parole. (Bureau of Justice Statistics)
NCJRS: Parole and Probation Publications and links from the federal government. (National Criminal Justice Reference Service)

Revoking Probation

Court Hearing on Probation Revocation Maine statutes on probation revocation.
Defendant’s Rights at Probation Revocation Hearing A form that defendant’s in Bates County, Missouri, must sign advising them of their rights at a probation revocation hearing.

Community Service

Community Service Restitution A volunteer center providing several Texas counties with referrals for community service.
Court Referral Program Homepage of a program in Bakersfield, California.

Community Corrections

Vera Institute An organization that provides alternatives to incarceration in New York City.
Minnesota Association of Community Corrections Act Counties The association of counties that operate corrections programming under the Minnesota Community Corrections Act.

Chapter 18: From Criminal to Delinquent

Chapter 18: From Criminal to Delinquent

Children and the Law: A History

The Development of the Juvenile Justice System An excerpt from Juvenile Justice: A Century of Change. (OJJDP)
The Greatest Reform School in the World: A Guide to the Records of the New York House of Refuge A history and documents relating to New York’s House of Refuge. (New York State Archives)

From the Criminal to Delinquent

The History and Development of Juvenile Justice Slides outlining the development of the juvenile justice system.
Child or Adult? A Century Long View (PBS Frontline)

Different Worlds: The Two Systems

Comparing the Two Systems From Juvenile Justice: A Century of Change. (OJJDP)
Collateral Consequences of Juvenile Proceedings Part 1 Part 2 A two-part series on the new consequences of being processed through the juvenile system. (American Bar Association)
Encyclopedia of Everyday Law: Juveniles
Chapter 14: Current Debates
Chapter 14: Current Debates

The Shaky Status of Sentencing Guidelines

Fifteen Years of Guidelines Sentencing A report. (U.S. Sentencing Commission)
Apprendi v. New Jersey (2000)
Blakely v. Washington (2004)
Blakely Blog A blog dedicated to collecting opinions, articles and scholarly thoughts regarding the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Blakely v. Washington.
The Supreme Beginner The story of attorney Jeffrey Fisher, who at age 33 won two major cases before the U.S. Supreme Court—Blakely v. Washington and Crawford v. Washington. (Los Angeles Times Magazine)
U.S. v. Booker (2005)
Online NewsHour: Sentencing Guidelines 2 News reports of the Booker decision.
Talk Left: Booker-Blakely Archives A legal weblog’s archive on the two decisions.
Booker and Fanfan Materials Documents, tables, and charts collected since the decisions. (U.S. Sentencing Commission)
The Supreme Court’s Sentencing Guidelines Decision: Its Logic, and Its Surprisingly Limited Practical Effect Attorney Edward Lazarus discusses the Booker decision, its likely practical consequences, and its unusual two-part opinion. (FindLaw)
Booker and Fanfan Commentary Collected commentary from another blog. (Sentencing and Law Policy)
One Cheer for United States v. Booker (PDF file)Timothy Lynch analyzes the Booker decision. (Cato Institute)

Are Too Many People Behind Bars?

Correctional Populations in the United States—Statistical Tables Data on the number of persons in the United States under some form of correctional supervision. (Bureau of Justice Statistics)
Prison Statistics Current statistics and links to federal government publications on prisons. (Bureau of Justice Statistics)
Prisoners in 2004 The annual report on prisoners in the United States. (Bureau of Justice Statistics)
World Prison Population List Comparative statistics of prison populations around the world. (Home Office Research)
Why Are We So Punitive? Some Observations on Recent Incarceration Trends (PDF file) Exploration of prison and jail population trends and an argument against massive incarceration. (National Policy Institute)
Crunching Numbers: Crime and Incarceration at the End of the Millennium (PDF file) Bureau of Justice Statistics Director Jan Chaiken explores some of the complex trends in property crime, rape, and violence among intimates and highlights some of the implications of the high rates of incarceration.
Right-Sizing Justice: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Imprisonment in Three States A 1999 report from John DiIulio Jr. and others about whether too many people are behind bars.
Effects of Judges’ Sentencing Decisions on Criminal Careers Findings of a study designed to determine how much judicial sentencing decisions affect offenders’ subsequent criminal careers. (National Institute of Justice)
Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences: Throwing Away the Key or the Tax-Payers Money? RAND study estimating the cost-effectiveness of mandatory minimum sentences for crimes related to cocaine distribution.
Decarcerate? An essay arguing that we should start thinking of alternatives to imprisonment. (New York Times Magazine)
The Sentencing Project Organization that promotes reduced reliance on incarceration and increased use of alternatives.
Crime-Control Effect of Incarceration: Reconsidering the Evidence, Final Report to the National Institute of Justice (PDF file) A review of the evidence.
Imprisonment This National Center for Policy Analysis site contains extensive information about imprisonment, including incarceration rates, the costs and benefits of imprisonment, prisoner profiles, and views on capital punishment.
The “Three Strikes” Law Pros and cons of California’s three-strikes law.
Families to Amend California’s 3-Strikes The home page of a state-wide California organization with the purpose of amending the California three-strikes law.
Three Strikes Was the Right Call Criminologist John J. DiIulio, Jr. argues in favor of the “three strikes” law. (American Prospect)
Three Strikes and You’re Out Online resource favoring the California three-strikes law. (Mike Reynolds.)
An Assessment of the Effects of California’s Three Strikes Law (PDF file) A study finding that California’s three-strikes law had minimal effect in bringing down the state’s crime rate. (Greenwood & Associates)
Still Striking Out: Ten Years of California’s Three Strikes A critical report brief that analyzes the research data about California’s three-strikes law. (Justice Policy Institute)
“Three Strikes” Law: Does It Really Work? An examination of studies conducted on three-strikes laws. (Maryland State Commission on Criminal Sentencing Policy)
On the Road to a Safe and Secure California, Proposition 66 Is the Wrong Route Argument against changing California’s three-strikes law. (Claremont Institute)
Online NewsHour: Three Strikes
Doing Time (Truth in Sentencing)
A Get-Tough Policy that Failed A 1999 article arguing that mandatory sentencing is not accomplishing its objectives. (Time)
Lock ‘Em Up? Conversation at the Hoover Institution over get-tough-on-crime measures.
Does Punishment Deter? A detailed argument that punishment does deter crime.
Truth in Sentencing in State Prisons Report on the development and use of truth-in-sentencing laws and data on the growing number of states that have adopted them. (Bureau of Justice Statistics)
Locked In: The Price of Truth in Sentencing: A four-part special series. (Milwaukee Journal Sentinel):

Part 1: Tougher sentencing law carries hefty price
Part 2: Door on early release closes tightly
Part 3: Once released, inmates find little help
Part 4: Another road to justice

Influences of Truth-in-Sentencing Reforms on Changes in States’ Sentencing Practices and
Prison Populations A National Institute of Justice–sponsored report on truth in sentencing laws and their effect on the prison population.
The Prison-Industrial Complex Eric Schlosser argues that a prison-industrial complex has developed in America. (Atlantic Monthly)
When They Get Out Sasha Abramsky claims that by putting such a high percentage of the population behind bars “we are creating a disaster that instead of dissipating over time will accumulate with the years.” (Atlantic Monthly)
The Sentencing Project Resources and information about criminal justice and sentencing issues from an organization opposing massive incarceration.
Measuring the Costs and Benefits of Crime and Justice Mark A. Cohen reviews state-of-the-art techniques for estimating the costs and benefits of criminal justice and prevention programs. (National Criminal Justice Reference Service)
The Debate on Rehabilitating Criminals: Is It True that Nothing Works? A 1989 Washington Post article by Jerome G. Miller arguing that rehabilitation should be central to American corrections.

Do Sentences Have to Be Proportionate?

Solem v. Helm (1983) U.S. Supreme Court decision holding that a criminal sentence must be proportionate to the crime committed.
Harmelin v. Michigan (1991)
In 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court issued two rulings upholding California’s three-strikes law:

In Lockyer v. Andrade, defendant Andrade stole $150 of videotapes from two different stores and was convicted of two felonies. Since these crimes were his third strikes, he was sentenced to two consecutive terms of 25 years to life.
In Ewing v. California, defendant Ewing stole three golf clubs, each worth $399, was convicted of grand theft, his third strike, and was sentenced to 25 years to life.

Both defendants appealed their sentences, saying they were grossly disproportionate to their crimes. In two 5–4 decisions, the Supreme Court upheld both sentences. The court stated that neither sentence was grossly disproportionate and that the court would only overturn the “exceedingly rare” “excessive” case.

Ewing v. California: the Supreme Court Takes a Walk on “Three Strikes” Laws...And That’s Fine A law professor argues that even though he opposes three-strike laws on policy grounds, the court decisions in Ewing and Andrade were correct. (Jurist)
Supreme Court Upholds ‘Three-Strikes’ Law News report on the Ewing and Andrade decisions. (Associated Press)
Cruel and Unusual Punishment? Resources on the Ewing and Andrade decisions. (American Bar Association)

Crack Versus Cocaine Information on:

Crack Cocaine

NCJRS: Cocaine Publications and links from the federal government. (National Criminal Justice Reference Service)
U.S. Sentencing Commission reports to Congress on Cocaine and Federal Sentencing Policy:

1997 (PDF file)

Crack’s Legacy A New York Times article discussing the effects that crack cocaine and the war on drugs have had on American society.
Punishment and Prejudice: Racial Disparities in the War on Drugs A report concluding that the war on drugs has been waged disproportionately against black Americans. (Human Rights Watch)
Race and Class Penalties in Crack Cocaine Sentencing (PDF file) Review of and argument against federal policy on crack and cocaine. (Sentencing Project)
There’s No Justice in the War on Drugs Article opposing the war on drugs by conservative economist Milton Friedman.
State v. Russell (1991) (PDF file) Study guide for students on this Minnesota case that the state’s disparity in punishment between crack and powder cocaine violated the state’s guarantee of equal protection.
U.S. v. Armstrong (1996) U.S. Supreme Court case striking down a selective prosecution argument involving crack.
Simon v. U.S. (2005) (PDF file) A post-Booker decision by a federal trial judge on whether to follow the sentencing guidelines on crack cocaine in this particular case.

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