Criminal Justice in America, 4th Edition Links

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Chapter 13: Corrections and Society New
Chapter 13: Corrections and Society

The Purpose of Punishment

Punishment An overview of the philosophy of punishment. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Legal Punishment (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Sentencing An extensive slide show on the purpose of punishment. (Southern Oregon University)
Punishment Essay by philosopher John Rawls on the justification for punishment.
Wikipedia: Punishment
The History and Philosophy of Punishment and Penology A short article laying out the history of some of the philosophies of punishment. (MegaLinks in Criminal Justice)

A Brief History of Punishment

Yahoo Directory: Prison History
History of the North Carolina Prison System 1870–1970
Punishment: A Brief History An extensive slide show on the history. (Southern Oregon University)
Early Prisons An extensive slide show on the history of prisons. (Southern Oregon University)
Jails An extensive slide show on 19th and 20th century jails.


Encyclopedia of Everyday Law: Sentencing and Sentencing Guidelines
State Sentencing Commissions Contact information for state sentencing commissions. (National Association of State Sentencing Commissions)
U.S. Sentencing Commission Information and publications from the U.S. Sentencing Commission, an independent federal agency in the judicial branch that develops guidelines for sentencing in federal courts, collects data about crime and sentencing, and serves as a resource on crime and sentencing policy.
Minnesota Sentencing Guidelines and Commentary (Minnesota Sentencing Guidelines Commission)
Reconsidering Indeterminate and Structured Sentencing Overview of indeterminate and structured sentencing in America and elaborates on the contrasts between them. (National Institute of Justice)
Appeals Judges’ Time Wasted Parsing Out Sentencing Guidelines Article discussing Congress’ sentencing guidelines for federal judges and the resulting flow of appeals over hair-splitting issues. (
NCJRS: Sentencing and Sanctions Publications and links from the federal government. (National Criminal Justice Reference Service)
National Institute of Corrections: Digital Resource Library Publications on all aspects of corrections.

CJA Links List

Criminal Justice in America, 4th Edition Links

Unit 1 | Unit 2 | Unit 3 | Unit 4 | Unit 5 | Unit 6 |
U.S. Constitution | Glossary | Table of Cases

Unit 1: Crime

Chapter 1: Crimes

The Basics of Crime
Elements of a Crime
Murder Most Foul
No Honor Among Thieves
Hate Crimes

Chapter 2: Defenses

An Overview of Defenses
The Insanity Defense

Chapter 3: Criminals

History of Violent Crime in America
How Much Crime Is There?
Youth, Gangs, and Violence
White-Collar Criminals
Swindlers and Con Artists

Chapter 4: Crime Victims

Who Are the Victims?
Victims of Violent Crimes
Victims of Property Crimes
Helping Victims of Crime
The Push for Victims’ Rights

Unit 2: The Police

Chapter 5: Police and Society

From Volunteers to Professional Police
Local Police


Chapter 6: Methods and Investigations

Community Policing
Criminal Investigations
Crime Labs

Chapter 7: Police and the Law

Criminal Procedure
The Law of Search and Seizure
Has a Search or Seizure Taken Place?
Is the Search or Seizure Reasonable?
Motor Vehicle Exception
The Stop and Frisk Exception
Other Exceptions
Interrogation and Confessions
Miranda’s Aftermath
The Exclusionary Rule

Chapter 8: The Limits of Police Authority

Racial Profiling
Police Corruption
Use of Force
Policing the Police
You and the Police

Unit 3: The Criminal Case

Chapter 9: Courts and the Case Process

The Two Systems of Criminal Courts
Judges and Judicial Independence
Criminal Lawyers
The Rights of Criminal Defendants
The Criminal Case Process
Using This Unit

Chapter 10: Investigation and Arrest

Police Crime Investigation Report
State Criminal Code
In Defense of Thomas Evans

Chapter 11: Pretrial

First Appearance Before a Judge
The Question of Bail
Prosecutorial Review
Plea Bargaining
Probable Cause Hearing
Evans’ Probable Cause HearingArraignment
An Issue at the Arraignment

Chapter 12: Trial

Trial Procedures
Cast of Characters
The Trial of Thomas Evans
Jury Selection
Trial Strategy
Opening Statements
Direct and Circumstantial Evidence
Rules of Evidence
Closing Statements
Instructing the Jury

Unit 4: Corrections

Chapter 13: Corrections and Society

The Purpose of Punishment
A Brief History of Punishment

Chapter 14: Current Debates

The Shaky Status of Sentencing Guidelines
Are Too Many People Behind Bars?
Do Sentences Have to Be Proportionate?
Crack Versus Cocaine

Chapter 15: Alternatives to Prison

The Need for Alternatives
Revoking Probation
Community Service
Community Corrections

Chapter 16: Prisons Today

Prison in America
Prison Revolts
Staying Out of Prison

Chapter 17: Capital Punishment

History of the Death Penalty
Public Opinion on the Death Penalty
Recent Developments

Unit 5: Juvenile Justice

Chapter 18: From Criminal to Delinquent

Children and the Law: A History
From Criminal to Delinquent
Different Worlds: The Two Systems

Chapter 19: The Problem of Delinquency

What Is Delinquency?
A Tour of the System
Initial Detention of Juveniles

Chapter 20: Children and the Constitution

The Rights of Juveniles
School Searches

Chapter 21: Juvenile Corrections

Options for Placing Juveniles Offenders
Problems With Locking Up Juveniles
At Home Plus
The Question of Waiver
Simmons and the Death Penalty
Roper v. Simmons (2005)
Current Trends and Controversies

Unit 6: Solutions

Chapter 22: The Causes of Crime

Theories and Approaches
Social and Cultural Factors
Individual and Situational Factors

Chapter 23: Crime and the Government

The Role of Government
Crime and the Federal Government
Federal Policy: The Patriot Act
Federal Policy: Gun Control
An Attack on Crime: The State Level
New Role of State Supreme Courts
The Color of Justice

Chapter 24: Crime and the Citizen

Getting Involved in Fighting Crime
Vigilantes in American History
Crime in Schools
Burglary Prevention
A Conclusion on Crime

CJA Table of Cases

Table of Cases

Links to all the cases cited in Criminal Justice in America, 4th Edition


Glossary of Terms

Glossary of terms used in Criminal Justice in America, 4th Edition

The Constitution - Full Text

United States Constitution

Full text of the United States Constitution


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